GIS (Geographic Information System) Services
Maps have been used for thousands of years, but it is only within the last few decades that the technology has existed to combine maps with computer graphics and databases to create geographic information systems or GIS.
Geographic information system :
A Geographic Information System or Geographical Information System (GIS) is a system designed to capture, store, manipulate, analyze, manage, and present all types of spatial or geographical data.
Geographic Information Systems is a computer-based tool that analyzes, stores, manipulates and visualizes geographic information, usually in a map. In other hand, we can say it is a system that collects, displays, manages and analyzes geographic information.
The key word to this technology is Geography – this means that some portion of the data is spatial. In other words, data that is in some way referenced to locations on the earth.
Coupled with this data is usually tabular data known as attribute data. Attribute data can be generally defined as additional information about each of the spatial features. An example of this would be schools. The actual location of the schools is the spatial data. Additional data such as the school name, level of education taught, student capacity would make up the attribute data.
It is the partnership of these two data types that enables GIS to be such an effective problem solving tool through spatial analysis.
Geographic Information Systems really comes down to just 4 simple ideas:
- Create geographic data
- Manage it.
- Analyze it and…
- Display it on a map.
GIS stores information about the real world as thematic layers. Of course, these layers are all linked by their geographic coordinates. As a result, we save cost because of greater efficiency in record-keeping and can make powerful spatial analysis with ease.
Geospatial data is created, shared, and stored in many different formats. The two primary data types are raster and vector. Vector data is represented as either points, lines, or polygons. Discrete (or thematic) data is best represented as vector. Data that has an exact location, or hard boundaries are typically shown as vector data. Examples are county boundaries, the location of roads and railroads using lines, or point data indicating the location of fire hydrants.
By contrast, raster data is best suited for continuous data, or information that does not have hard boundaries or locations. As rasters, the data are viewed as a series of grid cells where each cell has a value representing the feature being observed. Think of raster data as appropriate for modeling surfaces like elevation, temperature, precipitation, or soil Ph. These phenomena are measured at intervals (think weather stations), and values in between are interpolated to create a continuous surface. Raster data also includes remote sensing imagery, like aerial photography and satellite imagery.
The ESRI Shapefile has become an industry standard geospatial data format, and is compatible to some extent with practically all recently released GIS software. To have a complete shapefile, we must have at least 3 files with the same prefix name and with the following extensions: .shp = shapefile, .shx = header and .dbf = associated database file. Additionally, we may have a .prj = Projection file, a .lyr = layer file, and other index files. All these files must be saved in the same workspace.
GDB: Geo database
The file geo database is a collection of geographic datasets of various types, with the most basic types being vector, raster, and tabular data. There are three types of geo databases: file, personal, and ArcSDE. Geo databases are the native data format for ESRI’s ArcGIS.
GIS is more than just software. People and methods are combined with geospatial software and tools, to enable spatial analysis, manage large datasets, and display information in a map/graphical form.
TriCAD has done asset mapping ,parcel mapping, property Tax mapping and road network mapping across India and specific for Uttar Pradesh, Gujarat ,Andhra Pradesh and Telangana states.
2D Mapping by ArcGIS
Online Mapping Updation
Land Base Thematic Map